Pathogens Associated with Common Human Diseases

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This page lists human diseases and associated pathogens. Documentary links to online medical and research references are provided at the end of each entry. The long numbers are accession numbers of research articles available at PubMed. Click on a linked number to read an abstract (summary) of the article.

It is not possible to list all pathogens that are capable of causing certain conditions, such as pneumonia, food poisoning, meningitis, urine infections, respiratory viruses, etc. For such conditions, known common pathogens are shown. In some instances, newly emerging pathogens are still being researched and verified to cause disease.

This material provides disease information and references.
** It is not a listing of available frequency sets. **
For that list, please go
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The information below is not intended to be used for diagnostic purposes.
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Name of Condition ••• Associated Pathogen(s) ••• PubMed or other reference

A

Acne ••• Propionibacterium acnes; Staphylococcus species; Malassezia species ••• 10809844

Actinomycosis ••• Actinomyces species (numerous) ••• eMedicine PMC4297926 18222714 25788515

African sleeping sickness ••• Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (chronic variety, 95% of infections);
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (acute variety, 5% of infections) ••• WHO MedlinePlus CDC

African tick-bite fever ••• Rickettsia africae ••• 20233665 11357153

Alveococcosis (alveolar echinococcosis) ••• Echinococcus multilocularis ••• 20582310 18075150

Alzheimer's Disease (1) ••• Human herpesvirus 1 (aka Herpes simplex 1); Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae; Simian virus 40 ••• 17980964 15172740 17052268 17360920

Alzheimer's disease (2) ••• Treponema bacterial species; Fungal species, including Candida species ••• 21816039 26385886 25932012 26468932 25125470

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease, motor neuron disease) ••• HTLV-1 (Human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1); Human foamy virus (also known as Human spumaretrovirus); Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K); Mycoplasma fermentans; Echovirus 7 •••  10636120 12383408 11175327 8392664 26424568

Anaplasmosis (also known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) ••• Anaplasma phagocytophilum ••• eMedicine CDC

Angiostrongyliasis ••• Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), Angiostrongylus costaricensis (American rat lungworm) ••• CDC

Anthrax ••• Bacillus anthracis ••• CDC

Arthritis (rheumatoid and other types) ••• Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma arthritidis, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma penetrans ••• 17122006 10685797 10402069

Arthritis (rheumatoid) ••• Mycoplasma species: arthritidis, fermentans, hominis, pneumoniae, penetrans; Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus); Chlamydia trachomatis ••• 2773570 11752504 17530675 10910176 10402069

Ascariasis ••• Ascaris suum (also known as Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris lumbricoides suum) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

Aspergillosis ••• Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger (most common); Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus species ••• eMedicine

Astrakhan fever ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• 9082740

Athlete's foot (also known as tinea pedis) ••• Trichophyton rubrum (most common); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum ••• eMedicine

Atopic eczema, see Eczema, atopic

Australian tick typhus (also known as Queensland tick typhus) ••• Rickettsia australis ••• Australia

Autism ••• Desulfovibrio species, Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium species ••• 20603222 22202440 21592674 12173102

B

Babesiosis ••• Babesia microti, Babesia divergens (especially in Europe), Babesia duncani (formerly known as WA1), Babesia sp. EU1 (provisionally named Babesia venatorum), possibly other Babesia species ••• 24533312 19210953 11113258 16513280

Bacillary angiomatosis ••• Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana ••• eMedicine

Bartonellosis ••• Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana (louse-transmitted), Bartonella bacilliformis (present in Peru, Ecuador, & Columbia), Bartonella rochalimae, Bartonella vinsonii subspecies arupensis, Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella washoensis, other species of Bartonella (including B. alsatica, B. melophagi) ••• eMedicine 19961681 17553243 16704774 15184475 19331727 GalaxyDiagnostics

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) ••• Propionibacterium acnes ••• 17850358 17006718 15879794

Bilharzia (also known as schistosomiasis or snail fever) ••• Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma hematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma mekongi ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

Black death ••• Yersinia pestis ••• 20949072

Botulism ••• Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium baratii ••• CDC

Boutonneuse fever (also known as Mediterranean Spotted Fever) ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

Brill-Zinsser disease ••• Rickettsia prowazekii ••• MedlinePlus

Brucellosis (also known as Malta fever, undulent fever, Bang's disease) ••• Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Brucella canis ••• eMedicine APHIS

Bubonic plague ••• Yersinia pestis ••• CDC

Buruli ulcer (also known as Bairnsdale ulcer) ••• Mycobacterium ulcerans ••• WHO

C

Cancer, adult T-cell leukemia ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine

Cancer, anorectal - squamous cell carcinoma ••• Human papillomavirus type 16 ••• 12861066

Cancer, B-cell lymphoma ••• Avian leukosis virus, Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus), Simian virus 40 ••• 18024587 9209336 7655018 21399869

Cancer, bladder ••• Schistosoma haematobium ••• 9880476 25566326

Cancer, brain tumors (various types) ••• BK virus, Simian virus 40 ••• 9989448 9776222

Cancer, brain, astrocytoma ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 9989448

Cancer, brain, choroid plexus ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 9989448 9776221 8760294

Cancer, brain, ependymoma ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 9989448 9776221 8760294

Cancer, brain, glioblastoma ••• Human herpesvirus 5 (cytomegalovirus), Simian virus 40, Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 ••• 21900396 18351367 9989448 25685179

Cancer, breast ••• Human/mouse mammary tumor virus, Bovine leukemia virus, Simian virus 40, Human herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus), Avian erythroblastosis virus (with breast-relevant oncogenes) ••• 11245493 17875739 17931409 2992089 3754034 18205041 25202681 26332838

Cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) ••• 18515742

Cancer, cervical ••• Human papillomavirus high-risk types: 16, 18 (most common); 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 82 (less common). Human papillomavirus low-risk types: 6, 11, 26, 40, 42, 53-55, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 69-73, 81-84, 89 ••• 25124771 25857319

Cancer, cholangiocarcinoma ••• Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus ••• 15258092 25566326 21603286

Cancer, colon / colorectal ••• JC virus, BK virus, Simian virus 40; Human papillomavirus, especially type 16; Streptococcus gallolyticus (formerly called Streptococus bovis biotype 1); Fusobacterium nucleatum, other Fusobacterium species ••• 10377441
12460931 15837733 18505087 17321098 23459622

Cancer, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine

Cancer, esophageal - squamous cell carcinoma ••• Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 ••• 15693850 17080019 21969503

Cancer, gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• 17727457

Cancer, head & neck squamous cell carcinoma ••• Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), especially type 16 ••• 12374687 12569557 20226055 23374258 26266234

Cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus); Human herpesvirus 6 ••• 18515742 17607791

Cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma ••• Human herpesvirus 8 ••• 9665995 15660651 17627810

Cancer, kidney (renal) / urinary tract ••• BK virus ••• 11418879 17511691

Cancer, liver (hepatocellular carcinoma) ••• Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter species (possibly Helicobacter hepaticus); Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis B virus ••• 18254774 15563667 1668882 11148003 18504216 eMedicine

Cancer, lung ••• Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 ••• 18006810 11306446 12461047

Cancer, melanoma ••• Melanoma-associated endogenous retrovirus, similar to Human endogenous retrovirus K ••• 14695188 18198388 16452225

Cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma ••• Merkel cell polyomavirus ••• 18202256

Cancer, mesothelioma ••• Simian virus 40 (SV40) ••• 23071320 22677986 17875683

Cancer, mycosis fungoides ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 7860737

Cancer, nasal inverted papilloma ••• Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 ••• 17727781

Cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) ••• eMedicine

Cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus), Simian virus 40 ••• 18282597 21475447 15202523 21399869

Cancer, osteosarcoma ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 9776222 8760294

Cancer, ovarian ••• Human papillomavirus type 16, Human/mouse mammary tumor virus ••• 12915876 16398227 3013624 8494710

Cancer, penile - squamous cell carcinoma ••• Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 ••• 17925550 eMedicine

Cancer, primary effusion lymphoma ••• Human herpesvirus 8, Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) 18628086 15613351

Cancer, prostate ••• Propionibacterium acnes, BK virus, JC virus; Human papillomavirus, especially types 16 & 18 ••• 16563091 18160432 18392798 12430138

Cancer, Sezary syndrome ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 7860737

Cancer, sinonasal carcinoma ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) ••• 7777348 7661287

Cancer, skin - basal cell carcinoma ••• Human papillomavirus types 8, 20 (and possibly other high-risk types) ••• 10861635 12750299

Cancer, skin - squamous cell carcinoma (see also Cancer, head & neck squamous cell carcinoma) ••• Human papillomavirus types 5, 8, 15, 17, 38, 50, 88, 95 ••• 18548109 16537831 18503604 17935140

Cancer, stomach (gastric carcinoma) ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• 17727457 17007010 16847081

Cancer, testicular ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus), Human herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus) ••• 19024602 10360811

Cancer, thyroid anaplastic carcinoma ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 12574230

Cancer, thyroid papillary carcinoma ••• Simian virus 40 ••• 12574230

Cancer, tonsil ••• Human papillomavirus type 16, Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) ••• 16991119 15608419 12447611 11765441

Candidiasis ••• Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, other Candida species ••• eMedicine 18854483 19821642

Carrion's disease (also known as Oroya fever, Verruga peruana) ••• Bartonella bacilliformis ••• eMedicine NIH

Castleman's disease, multicentric ••• Human herpesvirus 8 ••• BioMedCentral 18628086

Cat flea typhus (also known as flea-borne spotted fever) ••• Rickettsia felis ••• PubMedCentral 27155905

Cat scratch fever ••• Bartonella henselae ••• CDC

Cellulitis ••• Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci, other bacteria or fungi (less common) ••• eMedicine

Chagas disease ••• Trypanosoma cruzi ••• MedlinePlus CDC

Chancroid ••• Haemophilus ducreyi ••• eMedicine

Chickenpox ••• Human herpesvirus 3 (also known as varicella-zoster virus) ••• eMedicine

Childbed fever (puerperal fever) ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep); Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep); other bacteria ••• 6385721 Bacteriology

Chlamydia infection (genitourinary) ••• Chlamydia trachomatis ••• eMedicine

Cholera ••• Vibrio cholerae ••• CDC

Chronic fatigue syndrome ••• Simian parainfluenza Virus 5, HTLV-2 (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2) ••• 15448364 1672770

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, see COPD below

Clonorchiasis ••• Clonorchis sinensis ••• CDC 15258092

Coccidioidomycosis (also known as Valley fever, San Joaquin fever, desert fever, California fever) ••• Coccidioides immitis,
Coccidioides posadasii ••• Mayo eMedicine

Cold sores (also known as fever blisters) ••• Human herpesvirus 1 (also known as Herpes simplex 1); occasionally, Human herpesvirus 2 ••• WebMD

Common Cold ••• Rhinoviruses, Adenoviruses, Coronaviruses, Parainfluenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial virus, Metapneumovirus, Bocavirus ••• CDC CDC

Condyloma acuminatum (genital warts) ••• Human papillomavirus types: 6, 11 (most common); type 2 (occasionally in children); also types 10, 30, 40-45, 51, 54 ••• 23634957 Textbook of Dermatology eMedicine emedtv 19820442

COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) ••• These pathogens are secondary to other causes: Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae ••• BioMedCentral 15805181 11292642

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease ••• Spiroplasma mirum, other Spiroplasma species ••• 17761489 24423635 22552100

Crohn's disease ••• Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (also known as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) ••• 10189224 17714674 16207995 21167058

Cryptococcosis ••• Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii ••• eMedicine

Cryptosporidiosis ••• Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum ••• CDC 16041051

Cyclosporiasis ••• Cyclospora cayetanensis ••• CDC

Cystic fibrosis ••• Major pathogens secondary to this genetic disease: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly, B. cepacia), Burkholderia multivorans, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacteria species (non-tuberculous); Fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans ••• 15752680 15516471 16405721 17693140 19533713

Cysticercosis ••• Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 17762788

Cystitis (bladder infection), hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic ••• Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis; other bacteria including Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, and Ureaplasma species; BK virus ••• MedlinePlus InfectiousDisAdvisor MedMicrobiology eMedicine

D

Dandruff ••• Most common: Malassezia restricta, Malassezia globosa; occasionally, Malassezia furfur ••• 30108245 26298017 23106637 22232373 MicrobeWiki

Dengue fever ••• Dengue virus (types 1-4) ••• CDC WHO

Dental bacterial pathogens ••• Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia (also known as Bacteroides intermedius); Streptococcus species: S. gordonii, S. mutans, S. sanguinis; Tannerella forsythensis (forsythia), Treponema denticola; see also Endodontic infection ••• Oralgen 17720781 17277061

Diabetes, type 1 ••• Coxsackievirus B, type 4 ••• 7897366 17360338 12376963 28112573

Dicrocoeliasis ••• Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dicrocoelium chinensis ••• CDC 21929882 21736477

Diphtheria ••• Corynebacterium diphtheriae ••• MedlinePlus

Diphyllobothriasis (broad tapeworm infection) ••• Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense ••• 19136438 19523283

E

Ear infection (otitis media) ••• Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly, Branhamella catarrhalis) ••• eMedicine 1513611 eMedicine #2

Eastern equine encephalitis ••• Eastern equine encephalitis virus ••• CDC eMedicine

Echinococcosis •••Echinococcus multilocularis (causes alveolar echinococcus, also known as alveolar hydatid disease); Echinococcus granulosus (causes cystic echinococcus, also known as hydatidosis) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

Echinostomiasis ••• Echinostoma hortense, E. macrorchis, E. revolutum, E. ilocanum, E. perfoliatum ••• eMedicine

Eczema, atopic ••• Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis ••• 22232373 23341551

Ehrlichiosis ••• Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neorickettsia sennetsu, Ehrlichia ewingii ••• 16482227 17114689 10403852

Elephantiasis ••• Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti ••• WHO

Encephalitis, Japanese ••• Japanese encephalitis virus ••• CDC

Encephalitis, La Crosse ••• La Crosse virus ••• CDC 9494831

Encephalitis, St. Louis ••• St. Louis encephalitis virus ••• CDC

Endodontic infection ••• Streptococcus species: S. mutans, S. gordonii, S. sanguinis (formerly sanguis); Fusobacterium species: especially F. nucleatum; Porphyromonas species: P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis; Dialister species: D. invisus, D. pneumosintes; Olsenella species: O. uli; Peptostreptococcus species: P. stomatis, P. micros; Tannerella forsythia (also known as Tannerella forsythensis), formerly called Bacteroides forsythus; Treponema species: especially T. denticola; Enterococcus species: E. faecalis and E. faecium; Prevotella species: P. tannerae, P. melaninogenica, P. veroralis, P. nigrescens, P. denticola; Filifactor alocis; Campylobacter rectus; Capnocytophaga ochracea; other numerous oral bacteria ••• 12202557 16000454 16585688 eMedicine 19828883

Eosinophilic meningitis ••• Angiostrongylus cantonensis ••• CDC

Erysipelas ••• Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci; other streptococcal bacteria ••• eMedicine

Erythema infectiosum ••• Human parvovirus B19 ••• eMedicine

Exanthem subitum (also known as roseola, baby measles, sixth disease, roseola infantum) ••• Human herpesvirus 6B (most common), Human herpesvirus 6A, Human herpesvirus 7 ••• eMedicine Mayo

Eyelash mites ••• Demodex brevis, Demodex folliculorum ••• eMedicine

F

Fascioliasis ••• Fasciola hepatica (common or sheep liver fluke); Fasciola gigantica (a liver fluke, causes "tropical fascioliasis") ••• eMedicine CDC

Fasciolopsiasis ••• Fasciolopsis buski (intestinal fluke) ••• eMedicine CDC

Fever blisters (also known as cold sores) ••• Human herpesvirus 1 (also known as Herpes simplex 1); occasionally, Human herpesvirus 2 ••• WebMD

Fifth disease ••• Human parvovirus B19 ••• eMedicine

Filariasis ••• Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, Dirofilaria species ••• eMedicine

Flea-borne spotted fever (also known as cat flea typhus) ••• Rickettsia felis ••• PubMedCentral 27155905

Flesh-eating bacteria (also known as necrotizing fasciitis) ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus ••• WebMD NEJM

Flinders island spotted fever ••• Rickettsia honei ••• Aust Publ Health

Food poisoning ••• Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium (also known as S. enterica serovar typhimurium), Staphylococcus species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus ••• eMedicine 11677609 eMedicine #2

G

Gastroenteritis, acute viral ••• Caliciviruses: Norovirus, Norwalk virus; Rotavirus (especially in infants); Astrovirus ••• eMedicine

Genital herpes ••• Human herpesvirus 2 (also known as Herpes simplex 2); occasionally, Human herpesvirus 1 ••• eMedicine

Genital warts ••• Human papillomavirus types 6, 11 (most common types) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

German measles (also known as Rubella or 3-day measles) ••• Rubella virus ••• MedlinePlus CDC

Glanders ••• Burkolderia mallei (formerly known as Pseudomonas mallei) ••• CDC 15377793

Glaucoma ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• 12038941 14576945 14975507 17110054

Gnathostomiasis ••• Most common: Gnathostoma spinigerum; other species of Gnathostoma ••• eMedicine

Gonorrhea ••• Neisseria gonorrhoeae ••• eMedicine

H

Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) disease ••• Haemophilus influenzae type b (formerly, Pfeiffer's bacillus) ••• Bacteriology

Hand, foot and mouth disease ••• Most common: Coxsackievirus A16; less common viruses: Enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A6; sporadic occurence: Coxsackieviruses A4-5, A7, A9-10, B1-3, B5 ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 CDC

Heart attack (myocardial infarction) ••• Coxsackievirus B (human), types 2 & 3 ••• 18061067

Heart, myocarditis ••• Coxsackievirus B (human), types 1-5; Human parvovirus B19 ••• 18389726 15579433 12707353 11092665 15085375 16316398 12925460 14689308

Hepatitis ••• Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis D virus, Hepatitis E virus ••• CDC NIH

Herpes zoster (also known as shingles) ••• Human herpesvirus 3 (also known as varicella-zoster virus) ••• Mayo eMedicine

Herpetic whitlow ••• Human herpesvirus 1, Human herpesvirus 2 ••• eMedicine

Histoplasmosis (also known as Darling's disease, reticuloendotheliosis, Ohio Valley disease, African histoplasmosis) ••• Histoplasma capsulatum (also known as Ajellomyces capsulatus) ••• Broad Inst.

Hospital infections (most common) ••• Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus (especially MSRA strains), Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter/Enterococci species, Escherichia coli, Fungal species (including Candida parapsilosis & other Candida species), other pathogens ••• eMedicine 18854483

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (also known as tropical spastic paraparesis) ••• Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, also known as human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 or HTLV-1 ••• Merck Manual

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) ••• Anaplasma phagocytophilum ••• 16482227

Human monocytic ehrlichiosis ••• Ehrlichia chaffeensis ••• 16482227

I

Impetigo ••• Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes ••• eMedicine

Indian tick typhus ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ••• Bacteroides fragilis; Fusobacterium species: F. nucleatum, F. varium, F. mortiferum, and possibly other Fusobacterium ••• 16000463 25102986 27139617

Influenza ••• Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, Influenza C virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria ••• CDC

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ••• Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium ••• 12057927 Wikipedia

Israeli tick typhus ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

J

Japanese (Oriental) spotted fever ••• Rickettsia japonica ••• CDC

Japanese encephalitis ••• Japanese encephalitis virus ••• CDC

K

Kenya tick typhus ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

L

La Crosse encephalitis ••• La Crosse virus ••• CDC 9494831

Larva currens (also known as cutaneous strongyloidiasis) ••• Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni ••• eMedicine

Lassa fever ••• Lassa virus ••• CDC

Legionnaire's disease ••• Legionella pneumophila ••• CDC MedicineNet

Leishmaniasis (also known as black fever, kala azar, Baghdad boil, Dehli boil, Shahib disease, etc.) ••• Leishmania tropica mexicana, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania aethiopica, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania chagasi ••• CDC eMedicine WHO

Leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease) ••• Mycobacterium leprae ••• MedlinePlus

Leptospirosis ••• Leptospira interrogans sensu lato, Leprospira pomona, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira ballum, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira autumnalis, other Leptospira species ••• eMedicine Leptospira

Leukemia, adult T-cell ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine

Listeriosis ••• Listeria monocytogenes ••• CDC

Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, motor neuron disease) ••• HTLV-1 (Human lymphotropic virus type 1), Human foamy virus (also known as Human spumaretrovirus), Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K), Mycoplasma fermentans, Echovirus 7 ••• 10636120 7595608 11175327 8392664 8393394

Lupus (aka systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) ••• Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1 ••• 18432409 18240231 10436175

Lyme disease ••• Borrelia burgdorferi (primary species in N. America); Borrelia mayonii; Borrelia garinii (primary species in Europe); Borrelia afzelii (Europe); Borrelia spielmanii (Europe); Borrelia valaisiana (Europe) ••• CDC CDC ColumbiaUniv

Lyme disease co-infections ••• Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilia, Ehrlichia ewingii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia (Theileria) microti, Babesia divergens, Babesia duncani, Babesia sp. EU1 (provisionally named Babesia venatorum), Powassan virus, Deer tick virus ••• ColumbiaUniv CDC eMedicine CDC 11113258 19210953 16513280 11357992 11716135 15381804 CDC

Lymphogranuloma venereum ••• Chlamydia trachomatis ••• CDC 15472852

Lymphoma, B-cell ••• Avian leukosis virus ••• 18024587 9209336

Lymphoma, Burkitt's ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus) ••• 18515742

Lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine

Lymphoma, Hodgkin's ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus), Human herpesvirus 6 ••• 18515742 17607791

Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus) 18282597

Lymphoma, primary effusion ••• Human herpesvirus 8, Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus) 18628086 15613351

M

Malaria ••• Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ••• CDC (click on “Parasites” tab)

Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis ••• Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia restricta, Malassezia sympodialis ••• eMedicine 22232373

Malta fever (also known as undulent fever) ••• Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis ••• eMedicine APHIS

Marseilles fever ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

Measles (rubeola, red measles) ••• Measles virus ••• CDC eMedicine

Measles, German (aka Rubella, 3-day measles) ••• Rubella virus ••• MedlinePlus CDC

Mediterranean spotted fever (also known as boutonneuse fever) ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine 11557893

Melioidosis (also known as Whitmore's disease) ••• Burkholderia pseudomallei ••• CDC

Meningitis, bacterial ••• Various gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae (type B), Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus bacteria groups A, B, and G; Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep) ••• CDC MedlinePlus MedlinePlus eMedicine

Meningitis, viral ••• Coxsackie A & B viruses, Echo viruses, Herpesviruses, Enteroviruses #70 & 71, Mumps virus, Polioviruses, other viruses ••• CDC eMedicine MedlinePlus

Metagonimiasis ••• Metagonimus yokogawai, Metagonimus takashii, Metagonimus miyatai ••• CDC

Mononucleosis ••• Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus); Human herpesvirus 5 (also known as Cytomegalovirus) ••• eMedicine MedlinePlus

Morgellon's disease ••• Borrelia burgdorferi ••• 27789971 25879673 23326202

Mosquito-transmitted diseases ••• Chikungunya virus, Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Ross River virus, Barmah forest virus, Zika virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, LaCrosse encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, Plasmodium malarial species, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), other filarial roundworm parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia species) ••• MN Dept of Health AMCA

Motor neuron disease (also known as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, Lou Gehrig disease) ••• HTLV-1, Human foamy virus (also known as Human spumaretrovirus), Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K), Mycoplasma fermentans, Echovirus 7 ••• 10636120 12383408 11175327 8392664 26424568

Mucormycosis ••• Rhizopus oryzae (most common, also known as Rhizopus arrhizus); other species from: Mucor, Cunninghamella, Apophysomyces, Absidia, Saksenaea, Rhizomucor organisms ••• eMedicine MicrobeWiki

Multiple sclerosis ••• Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1, Human herpesvirus 4 (also known as Epstein-Barr virus), Human herpesvirus 6A, Chlamydia pneumoniae, HERV-W (Human endogenous retrovirus type W) ••• 11381188 9345377 1280512 20814489 16909795 15782388 17617614 19368703

Mumps ••• Mumps virus ••• MedlinePlus

Mycosis fungoides (also known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 7860737

Myocardial infarction (also known as heart attack) ••• Coxsackievirus B (human), types 2 & 3 ••• 18061067

Myocarditis ••• Coxsackievirus B (human), types 1-5; Human parvovirus B19 ••• 18389726 15579433 12707353 11092665 15085375 16316398 12925460 14689308

N

Nail fungus (also known as onychomycosis) ••• Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale; Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis ••• eMedicine 30107987 29707676 22954465 DermNetNZ

Necrotizing fasciitis ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus ••• WebMD NEJM

Neurocysticercosis ••• Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 eMedicine #3 17762788

Nocardiosis ••• Nocardia asteroides, many other Nocardia species ••• eMedicine CDC

North Asian tick typhus (or tick fever, also known as Siberian tick typhus) ••• Rickettsia sibirica ••• 14568744

O

Obesity ••• Adenoviruses type 36, 37, and 5 ••• 20109503 19593728 15611785 26352001

Onchocerciasis (also known as River blindness) ••• Onchocerca volvulus (a nematode); Wolbachia species bacteria (symbiotic with the nematode) ••• eMedicine 30107987 29707676 22954465 DermNetNZ

Onychomycosis (nail fungus) ••• Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale; Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis ••• eMedicine

Oroya fever (also known as Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana) ••• Bartonella bacilliformis ••• eMedicine

Osteomyelitis ••• Staphylococcus aureus (primary), Streptococcus species groups A & occasionally B, Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas species, Haemophilus influenzae, other bacteria ••• eMedicine

P

Paragonimiasis ••• Paragonimus westermani ••• eMedicine

Parkinson's disease ••• certain Nocardia species ••• 12429191 14769363

Peptic ulcer (stomach ulcer) ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• NIH MedlinePlus

Periodontitis ••• Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium periodonticum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Actinomyces viscosus, Tannerella forsythia (also known as Tannerella forsythensis), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemeomitans; see also Endodontic infection ••• 25434071 25387289 26313005

Pharyngitis ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (or other group A strep); Corynebacterium haemolyticus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae, other bacteria; many viruses (not limited to respiratory viruses) ••• eMedicine

Piedra ••• Trichosporon asahii, Trichosporon ovoides, Trichosporon inkin, Trichosporon mucoides, Trichosporon asteroides, Trichosporon cutaneum, Piedraia hortae (black piedra) •••eMedicine

Piroplasmosis, see Babesiosis

Pityriasis versicolor ••• Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia furfur ••• 11069459 16094290 22232373 DermNetNZ MicrobeWiki

Pityrosporum folliculitis, see Malassezia folliculitis

Plague (also known as black death, bubonic plague) ••• Yersinia pestis ••• CDC

Pneumonia (bacterial) ••• Streptococcus pneumoniae (common), Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae ••• CDC CDC

Pneumonia (viral) ••• Most common: Influenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial virus, Parainfluenza virus, Adenovirus; less common: Rhinovirus, Human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus ••• eMedicine

Pneumonic plague ••• Yersinia pestis ••• CDC

Polio and Poliomyelitis ••• Polio virus ••• CDC

Pontiac fever ••• Legionella pneumophila ••• CDC

Primary biliary cirrhosis ••• Novosphingobium aromaticivorans ••• 15554995 20161124

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy ••• JC virus ••• 11087099

Psittacosis ••• Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci ••• CDC

Psoriasis ••• Human herpesvirus 8 ••• 16230560 18711073

Puerperal sepsis (childbed fever) ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep), other bacteria ••• 6385721 Bacteriology

Q

Q fever ••• Coxiella burnetti ••• 19047403 eMedicine

Queensland tick typhus (also known as Australian tick typhus) ••• Rickettsia australis ••• Australia

R

Rabbit fever (tularemia) ••• Francisella tularensis ••• eMedicine

Rabies ••• Rabies virus ••• Rabies

Relapsing fever, louse-borne ••• Borrelia recurrentis ••• eMedicine CDC

Relapsing fever, tick-borne ••• Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia duttoni, Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia miyamatoi ••• eMedicine CDC CDC CDC

Rheumatic fever ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep) ••• eMedicine

Rickettsialpox ••• Rickettsia akari ••• CDC

Rickettsiosis (non-Spotted fever variety) ••• Rickettsia canadensis; possibly Rickettsia bellii (widespread Rickettsia species known to infect mammals; tick-borne) ••• 4985949 2742443 16223955 16703114

Rickettsiosis (Spotted fever variety) ••• Rickettsia rickettsii (causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever); Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia felis (carried by fleas), Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae (African tick-bite fever), Rickettsia conorii (Mediterranean spotted fever), Rickettsia sibirica (North Asian tick-borne fever), Rickettsia akari (causes rickettsialpox) ••• 14999622 16481534 15984913 16223955 20208020

Rift Valley fever ••• Rift Valley fever virus ••• CDC

Ringworm (Tinea infection) ••• Most common: Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum ••• eMedicine

River blindness (also known as onchocerciasis) ••• Onchocerca volvulus (a nematode); Wolbachia species bacteria (symbiotic with the nematode) ••• eMedicine

Rocky Mountain spotted fever ••• Rickettsia rickettsii ••• eMedicine

Rosacea ••• Demodex species, Bacillus oleronius, Staphylococcus epidermidis ••• article 22933353 22709541 24248990

Roseola (also known as exanthem subitum, baby measles, sixth disease, roseola infantum) ••• Human herpesvirus 6B (most common); Human herpesvirus 6A, Human herpesvirus 7 ••• eMedicine Mayo

Rubella (also known as German measles, 3-day measles) ••• Rubella virus ••• MedlinePlus CDC

S

Sarcoidosis ••• Mycobacterium tuberculosis, other Mycobacterium species; Propionibacterium acnes ••• 21659662 16926652 25191477 24428939

Scalded skin syndrome ••• Staphylococcus aureus ••• eMedicine

Scarlet fever ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus) ••• CDC eMedicine

Schistosomiasis (aka bilharzia or snail fever) ••• Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma hematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma mekongi ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

Schizophrenia ••• HERV-W (Human endogenous retrovirus type W) ••• 21936762 18760403

Scrub typhus ••• Orientia tsutsugamushi ••• CDC

Seborrheic dermatitis ••• Malassezia restricta, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia furfur ••• 22232373 DermNetNZ MicrobeWiki

Sezary syndrome ••• Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 7860737

Shigellosis ••• Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii, other Shigella species ••• CDC eMedicine

Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) ••• Human herpesvirus 3 (also known as varicella-zoster virus) ••• eMedicine Mayo

Siberian tick typhus (also known as North Asian tick typhus) ••• Rickettsia sibirica ••• 14568744

Sinusitis, bacterial ••• Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacteroides species, Peptostreptococcus species, Fusobacterium species, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas species, Prevotella species, other bacterial species ••• eMedicine 16272532 eMedicine #2

Sinusitis, fungal ••• Most common: Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus & A. flavus), and Mucor species; Curvularia lunata & other Curvularia species; Bipolaris, Exserohilum, Alternaria, Drechslera, Helminthosporium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Rhizopus, & other species (see also Zygomycosis) ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2

Sinusitis, viral ••• Most common: rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza viruses ••• eMedicine

Sixth disease (also known as exanthem subitum, baby measles, roseola infantum) ••• Human herpesvirus 6B (most common), Human herpesvirus 6A, Human herpesvirus 7 ••• eMedicine Mayo

Sjogren's syndrome ••• Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1, nontuberculous mycobacteria; Coxsackieviruses: B4, A13, possibly others ••• 1280512 1347429 28486537 15457458

Sleeping sickness (African) ••• Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (most severe); Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (most common) ••• WHO MedlinePlus CDC

Smallpox ••• Variola major virus, Variola minor virus ••• eMedicine

South African tick bite fever ••• Rickettsia conorii ••• eMedicine

Southern tick associated rash illness, see STARI

Sparganosis ••• Spirometra species of tapeworm: Spirometra mansoni, Spirometra ranarum, Spirometra mansonoides, Spirometra erinacei, Sparganum proliferum ••• CDC

Sporotrichosis (also known as Rose handlers' disease, Beurmann's disease, Schenck's disease) ••• Sporothrix schenckii (formerly, Sporotrichum schenckii) ••• eMedicine

Spotted fever (also known as Rickettsiosis), see Rickettsiosis (Spotted fever variety)

St. Louis encephalitis ••• St. Louis encephalitis virus ••• CDC

STARI (Southern tick associated rash illness, also known as Masters' disease) ••• Borrelia species, possibly Borrelia lonestari ••• 19522220 ColumbiaUniv

Stomach flu, see Gastroenteritis, acute viral

Stomach ulcer (peptic ulcer) ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• NIH MedlinePlus

Strep throat ••• Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep) ••• CDC Bacteriology

Strongyloidiasis ••• Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni ••• eMedicine

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ••• Measles virus (defective strain) ••• 12925376

Syphilis ••• Treponema pallidum ••• eMedicine

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, also known as lupus) ••• Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1 ••• 18432409 18240231 10436175

T

Taeniasis (tapeworm infection) ••• Taenia solium (pork tapeworm - most common); Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm - less common); Taenia asiatica, Taenia hydatigena, Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (fish or broad tapeworm), Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm), Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis ••• eMedicine eMedicine #2 17762788

Tetanus (also known as lockjaw) ••• Clostridium tetani ••• eMedicine

Thai tick typhus ••• Rickettsia honei ••• 11716110

Thrush ••• Candida albicans ••• eMedicine

Tinea infection (skin fungal infection, including ringworm) ••• Most common: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum. Others: Arthroderma obtusum, Arthroderma gypseum, other Microsporum species, Nannizzia species ••• eMedicine

Tinea pedis (foot fungal infection) ••• Trichophyton rubrum (most common); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum ••• eMedicine

Tinea versicolor ••• Malassezia species, often Malassezia globosa & Malassezia furfur ••• eMedicine

Tonsillitis ••• Streptococcus pyogenes, other pathogens ••• eMedicine

Tooth decay (caries) ••• Streptococcus mutans ••• MicrobeWiki

Toxic shock syndrome ••• Staphylococcus aureus, group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) ••• eMedicine

Toxoplasmosis ••• Toxoplasma gondii ••• eMedicine Toxoplasmosis

Trachoma (eye disease) ••• Chlamydia trachomatis ••• eMedicine

Trench fever (louse-transmitted) ••• Bartonella quintana ••• CDC

Trichinosis ••• Trichinella spiralis, other species of Trichinella ••• eMedicine

Trichomoniasis ••• Trichomonas vaginalis ••• eMedicine

Tropical spastic paraparesis (also known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy) ••• Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, also known as human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 or HTLV-1 ••• Merck Manual

Trypanosomiasis, African ••• Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (most severe); Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (most common) ••• WHO MedlinePlus CDC

Trypanosomiasis, American ••• Trypanosoma cruzi ••• MedlinePlus CDC

Tuberculosis ••• Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis ••• eMedicine CDC APHIS

Tularemia (rabbit fever) ••• Francisella tularensis ••• eMedicine

Typhoid fever ••• Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhi; Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar paratyphi A ••• 15531882

Typhus ("endemic" or "murine" typhus) ••• Rickettsia typhi; spread via infected fleas ••• CDC MedlinePlus

Typhus ("epidemic" typhus) ••• Rickettsia prowazekii; spread via infected lice ••• CDC MedlinePlus

U

Ulcerative colitis ••• Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (also known as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) ••• 21167058

Ulcers (peptic or stomach) ••• Helicobacter pylori ••• NIH MedlinePlus

Undulent fever (also known as Malta fever) ••• Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis ••• eMedicine APHIS

Urinary tract infection (urethritis) ••• Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, Proteus mirabilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Enterococcus faecalis, Aerococcus urinae, other bacteria ••• eMedicine 16135568 eMedicine #2 1500498 eMedicine #3

V

Valley fever (also known as coccidioidomycosis, San Joaquin fever, desert fever, California fever) ••• Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides posadasii ••• Mayo eMedicine

Venezuelan equine encelphalitis ••• Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus ••• eMedicine

Verruga peruana (also known as Oroya fever, Carrion's disease) ••• Bartonella bacilliformis ••• eMedicine NIH

W

Warts, common (Verruca vulgaris) ••• Human papillomavirus types 1, 2 (common); 4, 7, 27, 29, 57, 60, 65 ••• Merck Manual 1764803 Textbook of Dermatology

Warts, filiform (thread-like wart, a variant of common wart) ••• Human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 27, 29 •••
Warts Information Center

Warts, flat (Verruca plana) ••• Human papillomavirus types 3, 10, 28, 38, 41, 49 ••• Merck Manual Textbook of Dermatology

Warts, genital (also known as “Condyloma acuminatum”) ••• Human papillomavirus types: 6, 11 (most common); type 2 (occasionally in children); also types 10, 30, 40-45, 51, 54 ••• eMedicine 23634957 Textbook of Dermatology emedtv 19820442

Warts, plantar ••• Human papillomavirus types 1 (most common), 2, 4 ••• 2850937 6290785 Merck Manual Textbook of Dermatology

West Nile disease ••• West Nile disease virus ••• eMedicine

Whipple's disease ••• Tropheryma whipplei ••• 12606174

Whitmore's disease (also known as melioidosis) ••• Burkholderia pseudomallei ••• CDC

Whooping cough ••• Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis ••• Bacteriology eMedicine

Y

Yellow fever ••• Yellow fever virus ••• MicrobeWiki

Z

Zygomycosis (also known as Mucormycosis, invasive fungal sinusitis) ••• Rhizopus species (most common); Rhizopus oryzae (formerly, Rhizopus arrhizus), Rhizopus rhizopodiformis; Mucor species, Cunninghamella species; other fungal species including Apophysomyces, Absidia, Saksenaea, Rhizomucor, Mortierella, Entomophthora, Conidiobolus, Basidiobolus, and others ••• eMedicine