Pathogens Associated with Common Human Diseases

This chart shows disease names and associated pathogens of some common human diseases. Clickable links to online medical or research references are provided in the last column, which verify the disease-pathogen association. The "PMID" numbers in the third column are the access numbers of research articles available at PubMed from the National Library of Medicine/National Institute of Health. You can click on the linked numbers to read the abstracts of the articles, or you can manually enter the number into the search box here.

Some references are in pdf format. If you are not able to open them, and need to download the free Adobe Reader software, go here.

It is not possible to list all the pathogens that are capable of causing some conditions, such as pneumonia, food poisoning, meningitis, urine infections, respiratory viruses, etc. For those conditions, only the most common pathogens are shown. In some instances, newly emerging pathogens are still being researched and verified to cause disease conditions.

This chart provides information and references, but is not intended to be used for diagnostic purposes. For more information, please see the disclaimer below.


Name of Condition Associated Pathogen PMID or other reference
Acne Propionibacterium acnes
Staphylococcus species
Malassezia species
10809844
Actinomycosis Actinomyces species (numerous) eMedicine
PMC4297926
18222714
25788515
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (chronic variety, 95% of infections)
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (acute variety, 5% of infections)
WHO
African tick-bite fever Rickettsia africae 20233665
11357153
Alveococcosis (alveolar echinococcosis) Echinococcus multilocularis 20582310
18075150
Alzheimer's Disease (1) Human herpesvirus 1 (aka Herpes simplex 1)
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae
Simian virus 40
17980964
15172740
17052268
17360920
Alzheimer's disease (2) Treponema bacterial species
Fungal species, including Candida species
21816039
26385886
25932012
26468932
25125470
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease, motor neuron disease) HTLV-1 (Human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1)
Human foamy virus (aka Human spuma retrovirus)
Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K)
Mycoplasma fermentans
Echovirus 7
10636120
12383408
11175327
8392664
26424568
Anaplasmosis (aka human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) Anaplasma phagocytophilum eMedicine
CDC
Angiostrongyliasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm)
Angiostrongylus costaricensis (American rat lungworm)
CDC
Article
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis CDC
Arthritis (rheumatoid and other types) Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma arthritidis
Mycoplasma fermentans
Mycoplasma hominis
Mycoplasma penetrans
17122006
10685797
10402069
Arthritis (rheumatoid) Mycoplasma species: arthritidis, fermentans, hominis, pneumoniae, penetrans
Epstein barr virus (aka Human herpesvirus 4)
Chlamydia trachomatis
2773570
11752504
17530675
10910176
10402069
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides
(aka Ascaris suum or Ascaris lumbricoides suum)
eMedicine
eMedicine #2
Aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger (most common);
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus clavatus
Aspergillus species
eMedicine
Astrakhan fever Rickettsia conorii 9082740
Athlete's foot (aka tinea pedis) Trichophyton rubrum (most common)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Epidermophyton floccosum
eMedicine
Autism Desulfovibrio species
Bacteroides vulgatus
Clostridium species
20603222
22202440
21592674
12173102
Babesiosis Babesia microti
Babesia divergens (especially in Europe)
Babesia duncani (formerly known as WA1)
Babesia sp. EU1 (provisionally named Babesia venatorum)
possibly other Babesia species
24533312
19210953
11113258
16513280
Bacillary angiomatosis Bartonella henselae
Bartonella quintana
eMedicine
Bartonellosis (1) Bartonella henselae
Bartonella quintana (louse-transmitted)
Bartonella bacilliformis (present in Peru, Ecuador, & Columbia)
Bartonella rochalimae
Bartonella vinsonii subspecies arupensis
Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii
Bartonella clarridgeiae
Bartonella elizabethae
Bartonella grahamii
Bartonella washoensis
Other species of Bartonella (including B. alsatica, B. melophagi)
eMedicine
19961681
17553243
16704774
15184475
Bartonellosis (2) Bartonella henselae
Bartonella quintana (louse-transmitted)
Bartonella bacilliformis (present in Peru, Ecuador, & Columbia)
Bartonella rochalimae
Bartonella vinsonii subspecies arupensis
Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii
Bartonella clarridgeiae
Bartonella elizabethae
Bartonella grahamii
Bartonella washoensis
Other species of Bartonella (including B. alsatica, B. melophagi)
19331727
Article
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) Propionibacterium acnes 17850358
17006718
15879794
Bilharzia (aka schistosomiasis or snail fever) Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma hematobium
Schistosoma japonicum
Schistosoma intercalatum
Schistosoma mekongi
eMedicine
eMedicine #2
Black death Yersinia pestis 20949072
Botulism Clostridium botulinum CDC
Boutonneuse fever (aka Mediterranean Spotted Fever) Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
Brill-Zinsser disease Rickettsia prowazekii MedlinePlus
Brucellosis (aka Malta fever, undulent fever, Bang's disease) Brucella melitensis
Brucella abortus
Brucella suis
Brucella canis
eMedicine
APHIS
Bubonic plague Yersinia pestis CDC
Buruli ulcer (aka Bairnsdale ulcer) Mycobacterium ulcerans WHO
Cancer, adult T-cell leukemia Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
Cancer, anorectal - squamous cell carcinoma Human papillomavirus type 16 12861066
Cancer, B-cell lymphoma Avian leukosis virus
Epstein barr virus
Simian virus 40
18024587
9209336
7655018
21399869
Cancer, bladder Schistosoma haematobium 9880476
25566326
Cancer, brain tumors (various types) BK virus
Simian virus 40
Univ Chicago
9989448
9776222
Cancer, brain, astrocytoma Simian virus 40 9989448
Cancer, brain, choroid plexus Simian virus 40 9989448
9776221
8760294
Cancer, brain, ependymoma Simian virus 40 9989448
9776221
8760294
Cancer, brain, glioblastoma Human herpesvirus 5 (cytomegalovirus)
Simian virus 40
Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18
21900396
18351367
9989448
25685179
Cancer, breast (1) Human/mouse mammary tumor virus
Avian erythroblastosis virus, with breast-relevant oncogenes
11245493
17875739
17931409
2992089
3754034
Cancer, breast (2) Bovine leukemia virus
Simian virus 40
Human herpesvirus 5 (Cytomegalovirus)
18205041
25202681
26332838
Cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) 18515742
Cancer, cervical Human papillomavirus high-risk types:
16, 18 (most common)
31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 82 (less common)

Human papillomavirus low-risk types:
6, 11, 26, 40, 42, 53-55, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 69-73, 81-84, 89
25124771
25857319
Cancer, cholangiocarcinoma Clonorchis sinensis
Opisthorchis viverrini
Opisthorchis felineus
15258092
25566326
21603286
Cancer, colon / colorectal (1) JC virus
BK virus
Simian virus 40
Human papillomavirus, especially type 16
10377441
12460931
15837733
18505087
17321098
Cancer, colon / colorectal (2) Streptococcus gallolyticus (formerly called Streptococus bovis biotype 1)
Fusobacterium nucleatum
other Fusobacterium species
23459622
Cancer, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
Cancer, esophageal - squamous cell carcinoma Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 15693850
17080019
21969503
Cancer, gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma Helicobacter pylori 17727457
Cancer, head & neck squamous cell carcinoma Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), especially type 16 12374687
12569557
20226055
23374258
26266234
Cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma Epstein barr virus (human herpesvirus 4)
Human herpesvirus 6
18515742
17607791
Cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma Human herpesvirus 8 9665995
15660651
17627810
Cancer, kidney (renal) / urinary tract BK virus 11418879
17511691
Cancer, liver (hepatocellular carcinoma) Helicobacter pylori,
Helicobacter species
(possibly Helicobacter hepaticus)
18254774
15563667
1668882
11148003
18504216
Cancer, liver (hepatocellular carcinoma), continued Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis B virus
eMedicine
Cancer, lung Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 18006810
11306446
12461047
Cancer, melanoma Melanoma-associated endogenous retrovirus, similar to Human endogenous retrovirus K 14695188
18198388
16452225
Cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma Merkel cell polyomavirus 18202256
Cancer, mesothelioma Simian virus 40 (SV40) 23071320
22677986
17875683
Cancer, mycosis fungoides Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
eMedicine
7860737
Cancer, nasal inverted papilloma Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 17727781
Cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma Epstein barr virus (human herpesvirus 4) eMedicine
Cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4)
Simian virus 40
18282597
21475447
15202523
21399869
Cancer, osteosarcoma Simian virus 40 9776222
8760294
Cancer, ovarian Human papillomavirus type 16
Mouse mammary tumor virus
12915876
16398227
3013624
8494710
Cancer, penile - squamous cell carcinoma Human papillomavirus types 16 & 18 17925550
eMedicine
Cancer, primary effusion lymphoma Human herpesvirus 8
Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4)
18628086
15613351
Cancer, prostate Propionibacterium acnes
BK virus
Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 & 18
JC virus
16563091
18160432
18392798
12430138
Cancer, Sezary syndrome Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
eMedicine
7860737
Cancer, sinonasal carcinoma Epstein Barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) 7777348
7661287
Cancer, skin - basal cell carcinoma Human papillomavirus types 8, 20 (and possibly other high-risk types) 10861635
12750299
Cancer, skin - squamous cell carcinoma (see also Cancer, head & neck squamous cell carcinoma) Human papillomavirus types 5, 8, 15, 17, 38, 50, 88, 95 18548109
16537831
18503604
17935140
Cancer, stomach (gastric carcinoma) Helicobacter pylori 17727457
17007010
16847081
Cancer, testicular Epstein Barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4)
Cytomegalovirus (Human herpesvirus 5)
19024602
10360811
Cancer, thyroid carcinoma anaplastic Simian virus 40 12574230
Cancer, thyroid carcinoma papillary Simian virus 40 12574230
Cancer, tonsil Human papillomavirus type 16
Epstein Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4)
16991119
15608419
12447611
11765441
Candidiasis Candida albicans
Candida parapsilosis
other Candida species
eMedicine
18854483
19821642
Carrion's disease (aka Oroya fever, Verruga peruana) Bartonella bacilliformis eMedicine
NIH
Castleman's disease, multicentric Human herpesvirus 8 BioMedCentral
18628086
Cat flea rickettsiosis Rickettsia felis CDC
Cat scratch fever Bartonella henselae CDC
Cellulitis Staphylococcus aureus
group A streptococci
other bacteria or fungi (less common)
eMedicine
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi NLM
CDC
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi WebMD
Chickenpox Human herpesvirus 3
(aka varicella-zoster virus)
Mayo
ICTV
Childbed fever (puerperal fever) Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)
other bacteria
6385721
Bacteriology
Chlamydia (vaginal) Chlamydia trachomatis CDC
Cholera Vibrio cholerae CDC
Chronic fatigue syndrome (Simian) Parainfluenza Virus 5
HTLV-2 (Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2)
15448364
1672770
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease See COPD below
Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis CDC
15258092
Coccidioidomycosis (aka Valley fever, San Joaquin fever, desert fever, California fever) Coccidioides immitis
Coccidioides posadasii
Mayo
eMedicine
Cold sores Human herpesvirus 1 (aka Herpes simplex 1)
occasionally, Human herpesvirus 2
WebMD
Common Cold Rhinoviruses, Adenoviruses, Coronaviruses,
Parainfluenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial virus,
Metapneumovirus, Bocavirus
NIH
CDC
CDC
Condyloma acuminatum (genital warts) Human papillomavirus types: 6, 11 (most common); type 2 (occasionally in children)
Also types 10, 30, 40-45, 51, 54
23634957
Textbook of Dermatology
eMedicine
emedtv
19820442
COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) These pathogens are secondary to other causes:
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
BioMedCentral
Review article
15805181
11292642
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease Spiroplasma mirum
Other Spiroplasma species
17761489
24423635
22552100
Crohn's disease Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
(aka Mycobacterium paratuberculosis)
10189224
17714674
16207995
21167058
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans
Cryptococcus gattii
eMedicine
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium species
(C. hominis, C. parvum)
CDC
16041051
Cystic fibrosis Major pathogens associated with this genetic disease:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly, B. cepacia)
Burkholderia multivorans
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans
Klebsiella species
Staphylococcus aureus
Haemophilus influenzae
Mycobacteria species, non-tuberculous
Fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans
15752680
15516471
16405721
17693140
19533713
Cysticercosis Taenia solium
Taenia saginata
Taenia asiatica
eMedicine
eMedicine
17762788
Cystitis, hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic BK virus Univ Chicago
Dandruff Malassezia globosa
Malassezia restricta
23512963
23106637
Dengue fever Dengue virus (types 1-4) CDC
WHO
Dental bacterial pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Prevotella intermedia (aka Bacteroides intermedius)
Streptococcus species: S. gordonii, S. mutans, S. sanguinis
Tannerella forsythensis (forsythia)
Treponema denticola
See also Endodontic infection
Oralgen
17720781
17277061
Diabetes, type 1 Coxsackievirus B, type 4 7897366
17360338
12376963
Dicrocoeliasis Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Dicrocoelium chinensis
CDC
21929882
21736477
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae MedlinePlus
Diphyllobothriasis (broad tapeworm infection) Diphyllobothrium latum
Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense
19136438
19523283
Ear infection (otitis media) Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Moraxella (formerly, Branhamella) catarrhalis
eMedicine
1513611
eMedicine
Eastern equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus CDC
eMedicine
Echinococcosis Echinococcus multilocularis
(causes alveolar echinococcus, aka alveolar hydatid disease).
Echinococcus granulosus
(causes cystic echinococcus, aka hydatidosis).
eMedicine
eMedicine
Echinostomiasis Echinostoma hortense, E. macrorchis, E. revolutum, E. ilocanum, E. perfoliatum eMedicine
CDC
Ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Ehrlichia canis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Neorickettsia sennetsu
Ehrlichia ewingii
16482227
17114689
10403852
Elephantiasis Brugia malayi
Wuchereria bancrofti
WHO
Encephalitis, Japanese Japanese encephalitis virus CDC
Encephalitis, La Crosse La Crosse virus CDC
9494831
Encephalitis, St. Louis St. Louis encephalitis virus CDC
Endodontic infection Streptococcus species: S. mutans, S. gordonii, S. sanguinis (formerly sanguis)
Fusobacterium species: especially F. nucleatum
Porphyromonas species: P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis
Dialister species: D. invisus, D. pneumosintes
Olsenella species: O. uli
Peptostreptococcus species: P. stomatis, P. micros
Tannerella forsythia (aka Tannerella forsythensis); formerly called Bacteroides forsythus
Treponema species: especially T. denticola
Enterococcus species: E. faecalis and E. faecium
Prevotella species: P. tannerae, P. melaninogenica, P. veroralis, P. nigrescens, P. denticola
Filifactor alocis
Campylobacter rectus
Capnocytophaga ochracea
Other numerous oral bacteria
12202557
16000454
16585688
eMedicine
19828883
Eosinophilic meningitis Angiostrongylus cantonensis CDC
Erysipelas Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
other streptococcal bacteria
eMedicine
Erythema infectiosum Human parvovirus B19 eMedicine
Exanthem subitum (aka roseola, baby measles, sixth disease, roseola infantum) Human herpesvirus 6B (most common)
Human herpesvirus 6A
Human herpesvirus 7
eMedicine
Mayo
Eyelash mites Demodex brevis
Demodex folliculorum
eMedicine
Fascioliasis Fasciola hepatica (common or sheep liver fluke)
Fasciola gigantica (a liver fluke, causes "tropical fascioliasis")
eMedicine
CDC
Fasciolopsiasis Fasciolopsis buski (intestinal fluke) eMedicine
CDC
Fifth disease Human parvovirus B19 eMedicine
Filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti
Brugia malayi
Brugia timori
Onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa
Dirofilaria species
eMedicine
Flesh-eating bacteria (aka necrotizing fasciitis) Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)
Vibrio vulnificus
Staphylococcus aureus
WebMD
NEJM
EMBL-EBI
Flinders island spotted fever Rickettsia honei CDC
Food poisoning Campylobacter jejuni
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium perfringens
Salmonella typhimurium (aka S. enterica serovar typhimurium)
Staphylococcus species
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus
eMedicine
11677609
eMedicine
Gastroenteritis, acute viral Caliciviruses: Norovirus, Norwalk virus
Rotavirus (especially in infants)
Astrovirus
eMedicine
Genital herpes Human herpesvirus 2 (aka Herpes simplex 2)
occasionally, Human herpesvirus 1
CDC
Genital warts Human papillomavirus; most common types: 6, 11 eMedicine
eMedicine
German measles (aka Rubella, 3-day measles) Rubella virus MedlinePlus
CDC
Glanders Burkolderia mallei CDC
Glaucoma Helicobacter pylori 12038941
14576945
14975507
17110054
Gnathostomiasis Most common: Gnathostoma spinigerum
Other species of Gnathostoma
eMedicine
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae CDC
Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) disease Haemophilus influenzae type b
(formerly, Pfeiffer's bacillus)
CDC
Bacteriology
Hand, fouth and mouth disease Most common: Coxsackievirus A16.
Less common viruses: Enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A6.
Sporadic: Coxsackieviruses A4-5, A7, A9-10, B1-3, B5.
eMedicine
eMedicine (2)
CDC
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) Coxsackievirus B (human), types 2 & 3 18061067
Heart, myocarditis Coxsackievirus B (human), types 1-5 18389726
15579433
12707353
11092665
Heart, myocarditis (con't.) Human parvovirus B19 15085375
16316398
12925460
14689308
Hepatitis Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis D virus
Hepatitis E virus
CDC
NIH
Histoplasmosis (aka Darling's disease, reticuloendotheliosis, Ohio Valley disease) Histoplasma capsulatum
(aka Ajellomyces capsulatus)
PubMed Health
Broad Inst.
Hospital infections (most common) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus (especially MSRA strains)
Clostridium difficile
Acinetobacter baumannii
Enterobacter/Enterococci species
Escherichia coli
Fungal species (including Candida parapsilosis & other Candida sp.)
Other pathogens
eMedicine
CDC
18854483
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (aka tropical spastic paraparesis) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, aka human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 or HTLV-1 MerckManual
NIH
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16482227
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia chaffeensis 16482227
Impetigo Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pyogenes
Mayo
eMedicine
Indian tick typhus Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
Infant septicemia Enterobacter sakazakii NIH
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Bacteroides fragilis
Fusobacterium species: F. nucleatum, F. varium, F. mortiferum, and possibly other Fusobacterium
16000463
25102986
27139617
Influenza Influenza A virus,
Influenza B virus,
Influenza C virus,
Haemophilus influenza type b bacteria
CDC
CDC
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus faecium
12057927
Wikipedia
Israeli tick typhus Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
Japanese (Oriental) spotted fever Rickettsia japonica CDC
Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus CDC
Kenya tick typhus Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus CDC
9494831
Larva currens (cutaneous strongyloidiasis) Strongyloides stercoralis
Strongyloides fuelleborni
eMedicine
Lassa fever Lassa virus CDC
Legionnaire's disease Legionella pneumophila CDC
Leishmaniasis (aka black fever, kala azar, Baghdad boil, Dehli boil, Shahib disease, etc) Leishmania tropica mexicana
Leishmania braziliensis
Leishmania amazonensis
Leishmania tropica
Leishmania major
Leishmania infantum
Leishmania aethiopica
Leishmania donovani
Leishmania chagasi
eMedicine
WHO
Leprosy (aka Hansen's disease) Mycobacterium leprae MedlinePlus
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans sensu lato,
Leprospira pomona
Leptospira grippotyphosa
Leptospira ballum
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae
Leptospira canicola
Leptospira autumnalis
other Leptospira species
eMedicine
Leptospira
Leukemia, adult T-cell Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes CDC
Lou Gehrig's disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, motor neuron disease) Echovirus 7
HTLV-1 (Human lymphotropic virus type 1)
Human foamy virus (aka Human spuma retrovirus)
10636120
7595608
11175327
8392664
8393394
Lupus (aka systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1 18432409
18240231
10436175
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi (primary species in N. America)
Borrelia garinii (primary species in Europe)
Borrelia afzelii (Europe)
Borrelia spielmanii (Europe)
Borrelia valaisiana (Europe)
Borrelia miyamotoi
CDC
EMBL-EBI
Medscape
Lyme disease co-infections (1) Bartonella henselae
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Anaplasma phagocytophilia
Ehrlichia ewingii
Babesia (Theileria) microti
Babesia divergens
Babesia sp. EU1 (provisionally named Babesia venatorum)
CDC
eMedicine
11113258
19210953
16513280
Lyme disease co-infections (2) Powassan virus
Deer tick virus
11357992
11716135
15381804
Lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis CDC
15472852
Lymphoma, B-cell Avian leukosis virus 18024587
9209336
Lymphoma, Burkitt's Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) 18515742
Lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
Lymphoma, Hodgkin's Epstein barr virus
Human herpesvirus 6
18515742
17607791
Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4) 18282597
Lymphoma, primary effusion Human herpesvirus 8
Epstein barr virus (Human herpesvirus 4)
18628086
15613351
Malaria Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium malariae
WHO
Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis Malassezia species, especially Malassezia furfur eMedicine
Malta fever (aka undulent fever) Brucella melitensis,
Brucella abortus,
Brucella suis
eMedicine
APHIS
Marseilles fever Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
Measles (rubeola, red measles) Measles virus WebMD
Measles, German (aka Rubella, 3-day measles) Rubella virus MedlinePlus
CDC
Mediterranean spotted fever (aka boutonneuse fever) Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
11557893
Melioidosis (aka Whitmore's disease) Barkholderia pseudomallei CDC
Meningitis, bacterial Various gram-negative bacteria
Haemophilus influenzae (type B)
Neisseria meningitidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus bacteria groups A, B, and G
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)
CDC
MedlinePlus
MedlinePlus
MedlinePlus
eMedicine
Meningitis, viral Coxsackie A & B viruses
Echo viruses
Herpesviruses
Enteroviruses #70 & 71
Mumps virus
Polioviruses
other viruses
CDC
eMedicine
Metagonimiasis Metagonimus yokogawai
Metagonimus takashii
Metagonimus miyatai
CDC
Mononucleosis Cytomegalovirus (human herpesvirus 5)
Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4)
eMedicine
Mayo
MedlinePlus
Morgellon's disease Borrelia burgdorferi 27789971
25879673
23326202
Mosquito-transmitted diseases Chikungunya virus
Yellow fever virus
West Nile virus
Dengue virus
Ross River virus
Barmah forest virus
Zika virus
Rift Valley fever virus
Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Japanese encephalitis virus
St. Louis encephalitis virus
Western equine encephalitis virus
LaCrosse encephalitis virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Jamestown Canyon virus
Plasmodium malarial species
Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm)
Other filarial roundworm parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia species)
MN Dept of Health
AMCA
USAID
Motor neuron disease (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, Lou Gehrig disease) HTLV-1
Human foamy virus (aka Human spuma retrovirus)
Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K)
Mycoplasma fermentans
Echovirus 7
10636120
12383408
11175327
8392664
26424568
Mucormycosis Rhizopus oryzae (most common, also known as Rhizopus arrhizus)
Other species from: Mucor, Cunninghamella, Apophysomyces, Absidia, Saksenaea, Rhizomucor
eMedicine
MicrobeWiki
Multiple sclerosis Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1
Epstein Barr virus (aka: Human herpesvirus 4)
Human herpesvirus 6A
Chlamydia pneumoniae
11381188
9345377
1280512
20814489
16909795
Multiple sclerosis, continued HERV-W (Human endogenous retrovirus type W) 15782388
17617614
19368703
Mumps Mumps virus MedlinePlus
Mycosis fungoides (aka cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
eMedicine
7860737
Myocardial infarction (aka heart attack) Coxsackievirus B (human), types 2 & 3 18061067
Myocarditis Coxsackievirus B (human), types 1-5 18389726
15579433
12707353
11092665
Myocarditis (con't.) Human parvovirus B19 15085375
16316398
12925460
14689308
Nail fungus (aka: onychomycosis) Trichophyton rubrum
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
eMedicine
Necrotizing fasciitis Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)
Vibrio vulnificus
Staphylococcus aureus
WebMD
NEJM
Neurocysticercosis Taenia solium
Taenia saginata
Taenia asiatica
eMedicine
eMedicine
eMedicine
17762788
Nocardiosis Nocardia asteroides
Many other Nocardia species
eMedicine
CDC
North Asian tick typhus (or, tick fever) Rickettsia sibirica CDC
Obesity Adenovirus type 36 (human) 20109503
19593728
15611785
Onchocerciasis (aka River blindness) Onchocerca volvulus (a nematode)
Wolbachia sp. bacteria are symbiotic with the nematode
eMedicine
Onychomycosis (nail fungus) Trichophyton rubrum
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
eMedicine
Oroya fever (aka Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana) Bartonella bacilliformis eMedicine
NIH
Osteomyelitis Staphylococcus aureus (primary)
Streptococcus species groups A & occasionally B
Enterobacter species
Pseudomonas species
Haemophilus influenzae
Other bacteria
eMedicine
Paragonimiasis Paragonimus westermani eMedicine
Parkinson's disease certain Nocardia species 12429191
14769363
Peptic ulcer (stomach ulcer) Helicobacter pylori NIH
MedlinePlus
Periodontitis Fusobacterium nucleatum
Fusobacterium periodonticum
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Treponema denticola
Actinomyces viscosus
Tannerella forsythia (aka Tannerella forsythensis)
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemeomitans
See also Endodontic infection
Microbiology
25434071
25387289
26313005
Pharyngitis Streptococcus pyogenes (or other group A strep)
Corynebacterium haemolyticus
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae
Other bacteria
Many viruses (not limited to respiratory viruses)
eMedicine
EMBL-EBI
Piedra Trichosporon asahii
Trichosporon ovoides
Trichosporon inkin
Trichosporon mucoides
Trichosporon asteroides
Trichosporon cutaneum
Piedraia hortae (black piedra)
eMedicine
Pityrosporum folliculitis see Malassezia folliculitis
Plague (aka black plague, bubonic plague) Yersinia pestis CDC
CDC
Pneumonia (bacterial) Streptococcus pneumoniae (common)
Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Legionella pneumophila
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
CDC
CDC
Pneumonia (viral) Most common: Influenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial virus, Parainfluenza virus, Adenovirus
Less common: Rhinovirus, Human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus
eMedicine
Pneumonic plague Yersinia pestis CDC
Polio Polio virus WHO
Pontiac fever Legionella pneumophila CDC
Primary biliary cirrhosis Novosphingobium aromaticivorans 15554995
journal article
20161124
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy JC virus 11087099
Psittacosis Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci CDC
Psoriasis Human herpesvirus 8 16230560
18711073
Puerperal sepsis (childbed fever) Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep)
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)
Other bacteria
6385721
Bacteriology
Q fever Coxiella burnetti 19047403
eMedicine
MerckVetManual
Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia australis CDC
Rabbit fever (tularemia) Francisella tularensis eMedicine
Rabies Rabies virus Rabies
Relapsing fever, louse-borne Borrelia recurrentis eMedicine
Relapsing fever, tick-borne Borrelia hermsii
Borrelia duttoni
Borrelia turicatae
Borrelia parkeri
eMedicine
CDC
Rheumatic fever Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep) eMedicine
EMBL-EBI
Rickettsialpox Rickettsia akari CDC
Rickettsiosis (non-Spotted fever variety) Rickettsia canadensis
Possibly: Rickettsia bellii (widespread Rickettsia species known to infect mammals; tick-borne)
4985949
2742443
16223955
16703114
Rickettsiosis (Spotted fever variety) Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever)
Rickettsia parkeri
Rickettsia felis (carried by fleas)
Rickettsia massiliae
Rickettsia africae (African tick-bite fever)
Rickettsia conorii (Mediterranean spotted fever)
Rickettsia sibirica (North Asian tick-borne fever)
Rickettsia akari (causes rickettsialpox)
14999622
16481534
15984913
16223955
20208020
Rift Valley fever Rift Valley fever virus Univ GA Grey Book
Ringworm (Tinea infection) Most common: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum eMedicine
River blindness (aka Onchocerciasis) Onchocerca volvulus (a nematode)
Wolbachia sp. bacteria are symbiotic with the nematode
eMedicine
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii CDC
Rosacea Demodex species
Bacillus oleronius
Staphylococcus epidermidis
article
22933353
22709541
24248990
Roseola (aka exanthem subitum, baby measles, sixth disease, roseola infantum) Human herpesvirus 6B (most common)
Human herpesvirus 6A
Human herpesvirus 7
eMedicine
Mayo
Rubella (aka German measles, 3-day measles) Rubella virus MedlinePlus
CDC
Sarcoidosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Other Mycobacterium species
Propionibacterium acnes
21659662
16926652
25191477
24428939
Scalded skin syndrome Staphylococcus aureus eMedicine
Scarlet fever Streptococcus pyogenes (beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus) CDC
eMedicine
Univ Michigan
Schistosomiasis (aka bilharzia or snail fever) Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma hematobium
Schistosoma japonicum
Schistosoma intercalatum
Schistosoma mekongi
eMedicine
eMedicine #2
Schizophrenia HERV-W (Human endogenous retrovirus type W) 21936762
18760403
Scrub typhus Orientia tsutsugamushi CDC
Sezary syndrome Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) eMedicine
eMedicine
7860737
Shigellosis Shigella sonnei
Shigella flexneri
Shigella dysenteriae
Shigella boydii
Other Shigella species
CDC
eMedicine
Shingles Human herpesvirus 3
(aka varicella-zoster virus)
Mayo
Wikipedia
Siberian tick typhus Rickettsia sibirica CDC
Sinusitis, bacterial Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Bacteroides species
Peptostreptococcus species
Fusobacterium species
Moraxella catarrhalis
Staphylococcus aureus
Porphyromonas species
Prevotella species
Other bacterial species
eMedicine
16272532
eMedicine
Sinusitis, fungal Most common: Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus & A. flavus), and Mucor species.
Curvularia lunata & other Curvularia species
Bipolaris, Exserohilum, Alternaria, Drechslera, Helminthosporium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Rhizopus, & other species
(see also Zygomycosis)
eMedicine
eMedicine
Sinusitis, viral Most common: rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza viruses eMedicine
Sixth disease (aka exanthem subitum, baby measles, roseola infantum) Human herpesvirus 6B (most common)
Human herpesvirus 6A
Human herpesvirus 7
eMedicine
Mayo
Sjogren's syndrome Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1
Nontuberculous mycobacteria
1280512
1347429
28486537
Sleeping sickness (African) Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (most severe)
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (most common)
WHO
MedlinePlus
CDC
Smallpox Variola major virus
Variola minor virus
WHO
South African tick bite fever Rickettsia conorii eMedicine
Southern tick associated rash illness see STARI below
Sparganosis Spirometra species of tapeworm CDC
Sporotrichosis (aka Rose handlers' disease, Beurmann's disease, Schenck's disease) Sporothrix schenckii (formerly, Sporotrichum schenckii) eMedicine
Doctor Fungus
Spotted fever (aka Rickettsiosis) see: Rickettsiosis (Spotted fever variety)
St. Louis encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis virus CDC
STARI (Southern tick associated rash illness, aka Masters' disease) Borrelia species, possibly Borrelia lonestari 19522220
Review article
Stomach flu see Gastroenteritis, acute viral
Stomach ulcer (peptic ulcer) Helicobacter pylori NIH
MedlinePlus
Strep throat Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep) CDC
Bacteriology
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloides stercoralis
Strongyloides fuelleborni
eMedicine
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Measles virus (defective strain) 12925376
Syphilis Treponema pallidum CDC
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, aka lupus) Human endogenous retrovirus HRES-1 18432409
18240231
10436175
Taeniasis (tapeworm infection) Taenia solium (pork tapeworm - most common)
Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm - less common)
Taenia asiatica
Taenia hydatigena
Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (fish or broad tapeworm)
Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm)
Echinococcus granulosus
Echinococcus multilocularis
eMedicine
eMedicine
17762788
Microbiology
Tetanus (aka lockjaw) Clostridium tetani eMedicine
Thai tick typhus Rickettsia honei CDC
Thrush Candida albicans eMedicine
Tinea infection (skin fungal infection, including ringworm) Most common: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum. Others: Arthroderma obtusum, Arthroderma gypseum, other Microsporum species, Nannizzia species eMedicine
Tinea pedis (foot fungal infection) Trichophyton rubrum (most common)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Epidermophyton floccosum
eMedicine
Tinea versicolor Malassezia species, often Malassezia globosa & Malassezia furfur eMedicine
Tonsillitis Streptococcus pyogenes
Other pathogens
EMBL-EBI
Tooth decay (caries) Streptococcus mutans Microbiology
Toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus (primary) CDC
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii eMedicine
Toxoplasmosis
Trachoma (eye disease) Chlamydia trachomatis eMedicine
Trench fever (louse-transmitted) Bartonella quintana CDC
Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis
Other species of Trichinella
eMedicine
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis CDC
Tropical spastic paraparesis (aka HTLV-1-associated myelopathy) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, aka human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 or HTLV-1 MerckManual
NIH
Trypanosomiasis, African Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (most severe)
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (most common)
WHO
MedlinePlus
CDC
Trypanosomiasis, American Trypanosoma cruzi NLM
CDC
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
Mycobacterium bovis
eMedicine
CDC
APHIS
Tularemia (rabbit fever) Francisella tularensis eMedicine
Typhoid fever Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhi
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar paratyphi A
15531882
Typhus ("endemic" or "murine" typhus) Rickettsia typhi CDC
MedlinePlus
Typhus ("epidemic" typhus) Rickettsia prowazekii CDC
MedlinePlus
Ulcerative colitis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
(aka Mycobacterium paratuberculosis)
21167058
Ulcers (peptic or stomach) Helicobacter pylori NIH
MedlinePlus
Undulent fever (aka Malta fever) Brucella melitensis
Brucella abortus
Brucella suis
eMedicine
APHIS
Urinary tract infection (urethritis) Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Ureaplasma parvum
Mycoplasma hominis
Proteus mirabilis
Chlamydia trachomatis
Enterococcus faecalis
Aerococcus urinae
Other bacteria
eMedicine
16135568
eMedicine
1500498
eMedicine
Valley fever (aka coccidioidomycosis, San Joaquin fever, desert fever, California fever) Coccidioides immitis,
Coccidioides posadasii
Mayo
eMedicine
Venezuelan equine encelphalitis Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus eMedicine
Verruga peruana (aka Oroya fever, Carrion's disease) Bartonella bacilliformis eMedicine
NIH
Warts, common (Verruca vulgaris) Human papillomavirus types 1, 2 (common); 4, 7, 27, 29, 57, 60, 65 Merck Manual
1764803
Textbook of Dermatology
Warts, filiform Human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 27, 29.
(Thread-like wart, variant of common wart)
Warts Information Center
Warts, flat (Verruca plana) Human papillomavirus types 3, 10, 28, 38, 41, 49 Merck Manual
Textbook of Dermatology
Warts, genital Human papillomavirus types: 6, 11 (most common); type 2 (occasionally in children).
Also types 10, 30, 40-45, 51, 54
aka: Condyloma acuminatum
eMedicine
23634957
Textbook of Dermatology
emedtv
19820442
Warts, plantar Human papillomavirus types 1 (most common), 2, 4 2850937
6290785
Merck Manual
Textbook of Dermatology
West Nile disease West Nile disease virus West Nile
Whipple's disease Tropheryma whipplei 12606174
Whitmore's disease (aka melioidosis) Burkholderia pseudomallei CDC
Whooping cough Bordetella pertussis
Bordetella parapertussis
Bacteriology
eMedicine
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus WHO
Zygomycosis (aka Mucormycosis, invasive fungal sinusitis) Rhizopus species (most common): Rhizopus oryzae (formerly, Rhizopus arrhizus)
Rhizopus rhizopodiformis
Mucor species
Cunninghamella species
Other fungal species including Apophysomyces, Absidia, Saksenaea, Rhizomucor, Mortierella, Entomophthora, Conidiobolus, Basidiobolus, others.
eMedicine
EMBL-EBI

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